Electrical surges can be caused by anything from lightning strikes, damaged power lines, faulty appliances and bad electrical wiring. The actual surge only lasts microseconds. Unfortunately, frequent surges can damage the electrical components connected to your home, reducing their life expectancy significantly.
If you experience frequent electrical surges, the culprit is probably an electrical device connected to the home grid or the wiring itself. Try removing any cheaply made devices or powerboards from the outlet to see if this stops the problem. If not, it might be time to consult a professional electrician.